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Srruo3 Synthesis Essay

The word “synthesis” is defined as a combination of elements to form a connected whole. Thus, a synthesis essay definition is an essay that combines different ideas into a whole to prove a point (otherwise called the thesis). Often, it comes with a text that you should analyze.

Table Of Contents

Writing Process

A key factor of writing a synthesis essay is an analysis of a given text or a prompt. In order to successfully analyze it, you must comprehend the text’s purpose, rhetoric, and the argument that the author’s claim, in other words, you are answering the question: “So what?”. Then, you must build your own claim, and write an essay around that.

Most Common Topics

A synthesis essay prompt must be negotiable. Like in the EssayPro's example above, Andrew Jackson’s negative views on Native American people were widely supported, today, however, they would be appalling. Depending on your assignment, you may have to choose a primary text. Choose a text that might have opposing viewpoints.

Good topics would be ones that are debatable, for example:

  • Daylight savings
  • Minimum wage
  • Abortion
  • Immigration policy
  • Global warming
  • Gun control
  • Social media

How Do I Write A Thesis?

Once you pick a topic of your paper, read your sources and establish your position. Make sure you thoroughly analyze the sources and get a good understanding of them, structure your claim or argument and write your thesis.

Example: Andrew Jackson’s fear of the Native American “savages” reflects the prejudices and ideas of the colonist people in the Union and the Congress.*

How Do I Write An Outline?

Creating an outline will help maintain the structure of your paper. If your essay is split into three parts, split your outline into three chunks. Paste supporting evidence, sub-arguments, and specific points in the appropriate sections. Make sure that every point somehow proves the claim in your thesis. Extra information or tangents will only hinder your essay. However, if information goes against your central claim, then you should acknowledge it as it will make your essay stronger. Make sure you have read all of your sources. When writing about the sources, do not summarize them; synthesis denotes analysis, not plot-summary.


  • Introduction
  • Thesis
    • Main point 1
    • Main point 2
    • Main point 3
  • Body
  • Main point 1
    • Evidence (quote from a source)
    • Analysis of Evidence
  • Main point 2
    • Evidence (quote from a source)
    • Analysis of Evidence
  • Main point 3
    • Evidence (quote from a source)
    • Analysis of Evidence
  • Conclusion
  • Restate main points and answer unanswered questions

Read more about how to write a great INTRODUCTION

How Do I Format My Essay?

The format depends on what style is required by your teacher or professor. The most common formats are: MLA, APA, and Chicago style. APA is used by fields of Education, Psychology, and Science. MLA is used for citing Humanities, and Chicago style is used for Business, History, and Fine Arts. Purdue Owl is a format guide that focuses mainly on MLA and APA, and Easybib is a citation multitool for any of your external sources.

Some key points are:

  • Times New Roman 12 pt font double spaced
  • 1” margins
  • Top right includes last name and page number on every page
  • Titles are centered
  • The header should include your name, your professor’s name, course number and the date (dd/mm/yy)
  • The last page includes a Works Cited

APA Format

Some key points are:

  • Times New Roman 12 pt font double spaced 1” margins
  • Include a page header on the top of every page
  • Insert page number on the right
  • An essay should be divided into four parts: Title Page, Abstract, Main Body, and References.

How do I write an AP English Synthesis Essay?

AP English Language and Composition is an extremely rigorous course that requires you to write essays that demonstrate deep understanding of the subject matter. In fact, if on the AP exam, your essay has perfect grammar and structure, you might still be awarded just 1 out of 9 points for not “defending, challenging, or qualifying your claim.” Sounds difficult, but it is doable. Before entering any AP class, it is best to read over the course overview and become familiar with the exam.

While writing, focus on the three branches of the AP English and Composition course: argument, synthesis, and rhetorical analysis.

Argument is the easiest component; create your claim and find specific supporting evidence. Convince your reader that you are right.

Synthesis requires you to read into multiple perspectives and identify an agreement and a disagreement between sources. This step is crucial to finding your own claim.

Rhetorical analysis deals with the author and his intentions. What was their purpose for writing this? Who is their intended audience? How does the author appeal to the audience and how does he structure his claim?

Essay Tips

There are two acronyms that are helpful with the three AP Lang writing branches.

Tip #1: SOAPS

Example text: Andrew Jackson’s speech to the Congress about sending Native Americans to the West.

Speaker: Identify the speaker of the piece, then analyze for bias and apply any prior knowledge that you have on the speaker.

Example: President Andrew Jackson had a bias against Native Americans. A piece written by Andrew Jackson about Native Americans will probably be written with a bias against him.

Occasion: Determine the time and the place of the written text, then identify the reason the text was written. Even if you aren’t sure of the reason, assume one and make your claim around it.

Example: Andrew Jackson was in office from 1829 to 1837. At this time, the Congress sent Native Americans to the West in order to clear the land for the colonists. Jackson was the one who made the proposal.

Audience: Who was the text directed to?

Example: Andrew Jackson’s speech was directed to a council.

Purpose: What is the text trying to say? Here, you analyze the tone of the text.

Example: Andrew Jackson appeals to pathos by calling Indians “savages”. His purpose is to portray Native Americans in a negative light, so the Congress passes the Indian Removal Act.

Subject: What is the main idea? What is the claim?

Example: Andrew Jackson wants the Congress to pass the Indian Removal Act because he believes Native Americans are uncultured and savage people.

Tip #2: Logos, Ethos, and Pathos

As you’ve probably learned before, Logos appeals to reason, Pathos appeals to emotion, and Ethos appeals to moral philosophy or credibility. However, for the AP Lang exam requires a wider understanding of the three.

If the text uses facts, statistics, quotations, and definitions, the speaker is appealing to Logos. Constituting various backup information is an extremely effective for people who want to persuade.

If the text uses vivid imagery and strong language it denotes Pathos, which is used to connect the audience to a piece emotionally; it is hardest to change the mind of a person who is linked to a subject via a strong emotion.

If the text attempts to demonstrate the speakers reliability or credibility, it is a direct appeal to Ethos. Using the example above, Andrew Jackson could have appealed to Ethos by stating the fact that he is the President of the United States, and thus, knows what is best for the union.

Often, Logos, Ethos, and Pathos lead to the use of logical fallacies.

Tip #3: DIDLS

This is a good shorthand for all textual analysis. While reading a text, try to pinpoint Diction, Imagery, Details, Language, and Sentence Structure in a piece. If anything stands out, add it to your analysis.


  • High range essay (8-9 points)
  • Effectively develops a position on the assigned topic.
  • Demonstrates full understanding of the sources or text.
  • Correctly synthesizes sources and develops a position. The writer drives the argument, not the sources.
  • The writer’s argument is convincing.
  • The writer makes no general assertions and cites specific evidence for each point. His/her evidence is developed and answers the “so what?” question.
  • The essay is clear, well-organized, and coherent. It is a stand alone piece rather than an exam response.
  • Contains very few grammatical and spelling errors or flaws, if any.

Note: 8-9 essays are an extreme rarity. A strong ‘7’ paper can jump to an 8-9 if the writing style is mature and perceptive.

Middle-Range Essay (57)

  • Adequately develops a position on the assigned topic.
  • Demonstrates sufficient understanding of the ideas developed in sources
  • Sufficiently summarizes the sources and assumes some control of the argument. ‘5’ essays are less focused than ‘6’ and ‘7’.
  • The writer's argument is sufficient but less developed.
  • Writer successfully synthesizes the sources and cites them.
  • Writer answers the “So what?” question but may use generalizations or assertions of universal truth. Writer cites own experience and specific evidence.
  • Essay is clear and well organized. ‘5’ essays less so.
  • Contains few minor errors of grammar or syntax.

Note: A ‘7’ is awarded to papers of college-level writing.
A ‘5’ on one of the AP English Language and Composition essays designates a 3 on the AP exam. It most likely relies on generalizations has limited control of the claim and argument. ‘5’ essays often lose focus and digress.

Low-Range Essays (1-4)

  • Inadequately develops a position on the assigned topic.
  • The author misunderstands and simplifies the ideas developed in the sources.
  • Over-summarizes the sources, lets the sources drive the argument.
  • Writer has weak control of organization and syntax. Essay contains numerous grammatical/spelling errors.
  • Writer does not cite the sources correctly, skips a citation, or cites fewer than the required minimum of the sources.
  • Notes: ‘4’ or ‘3’ essays do assert an argument but do not sufficiently develop it.
  • A ‘2’ essay does not develop an argument.
  • A 1-2 essay has severe writing errors and do not assert a claim.

Synthesis Essay Example

Essay Writing Advice From Our Professional Team

James Owen, online essay writer from EssayPro

The article reviews the basics of how to write a synthesis essay as well as how to dissect and analyze text when writing an AP English essay. One thing I would like to reemphasize is the importance of your thesis statement. When you write an essay for class or exam, make sure to state your argument clearly. If the reader of your essay doesn’t understand your point of view then what you’ve written is futile.

My advice is: when writing an essay in a short period (such as in an exam room) make sure to articulate your argument in every paragraph and connect every single one of your ideas to the thesis. My tip is to write your thesis down on a piece of paper and reread it at every point to ensure that the information applies and reinforces what you’ve stated in your thesis. This tip also goes for when you are writing a longer piece of writing, as it is very easy to lose focus and stray away from your main point.

Struggling With Writing an Essay?

Still having trouble crafting a synthesis essay? Need editing or writing help? You should seek advice from professional writers. Here at EssayPro, writers have written countless papers and are experts in their field. You can request to write your paper or editing or proofreading assistance. Rest assured that your paper is in good hands!

We notice that great advances have been achieved in growth of ferroelectric thin film structures during the past decades. Particularly, due to the development of epitaxial growth methods, it is now possible to prepare high quality and ultrathin ferroelectric films that are single crystal and defect free. Compared with the synthesis of thin films made of simple substances (e.g., Si) or binary compounds (e.g., GaAs and ZnO), synthesis of ultrathin ferroelectric films requires more sophisticated and special equipment, due to their complicated chemical constituents and properties. The wide variety of growth techniques of ferroelectric thin films include molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), vacuum evaporation (VE), sputtering method (SM), pulsed laser deposition (PLD), chemical solution deposition (CSD), and chemical vapor deposition (CVD), atomic layer deposition (ALD) etc., and they can be generally divided into two categories, i.e., physical ones and chemical ones. Each method has its own strength and weakness. Thus the growth method has to be carefully selected to obtain a certain film with desired properties. In this section, growth methods of ferroelectric thin films will be discussed and some comparisons will be made among them, which should be relevant for readers who want information of thin film growth physics and suggestions on choice of growth methods.

2.1. Thin Film Growth Physics

At the primary stage of thin film growth, which is the so-called nucleation stage, abundant vapor atoms or molecules condense and undergo surface diffusion and migration under the drive of both their self-energy and substrate thermal energy, then move to a stable position on the substrate [4,5]. Subsequently the nucleus ceaselessly incorporates surrounding atoms or molecules and gradually grows to a bigger size, finally resulting in film formation. The film nucleation and forming process have been well observed through many techniques [6,7,8], such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning probe microscopy (SPM) and field-ion microscopy (FIM), etc.

Thin film formation on clean crystal substrates can be classified into three basic growth mode, including: (1) layer-by-layer growth mode (Frank–Van der Merwe mode); (2) island growth mode (Volmer–Weber mode); (3) Stranski–Krastanov mode, which are illustrated in Figure 1. When the wetting angle θ (see Figure 2) is approximately zero, the interaction between atoms or molecules is smaller than their bonding to the substrate. The smallest nucleuses will extent on the substrate in two dimensions, leading to the thin film growth mode of layer-by-layer (Figure 1a). It is noteworthy that the bonding effect in each layer tends to be weaker than its precious layer. This growth mode usually happens when the substrate and film are homogeneous materials or some particular dissimilar materials such as the epitaxial growth of semiconductor and oxide materials. When the wetting angle θ is greater than zero, the bonding between atoms or molecules is larger than that to the substrate, causing the atoms or molecules bonding strongly to each other and growing into many three-dimensional nucleus islands (see Figure 1b). For this island growth mode, polycrystalline thin films with rough surface are usually obtained as the continual growth of the islands. Island growth mode often happens when the substrate and film are heterogeneous. Stranski–Krastanov mode lies between the two above mentioned growth modes, i.e., thin films firstly grow two-dimensionally in layer-by-layer mode, and then grow three-dimensionally in island mode (see Figure 1c), which happens in case of the generated stress impact after two-dimensional growth. The most attractive and popular film growth way is epitaxial growth, which refers to the formation of an extended single-crystal overlayer on a crystalline substrate, achieved through layer-by-layer growth mode. Introductions in details for epitaxial growth can be found in somewhere else [5,9].

Figure 1. Schematic diagram of three basic growth modes: (a) layer-by-layer growth mode; (b) island growth mode; and (c) Stranski–Krastanov mode.

Figure 1. Schematic diagram of three basic growth modes: (a) layer-by-layer growth mode; (b) island growth mode; and (c) Stranski–Krastanov mode.

Figure 2. Spherical cap-shaped nucleus on surface: θ refers to the wetting angle (contact angle); α refers to surface tension of spherical cap-shaped nucleus; α1 refers to surface tension of surface; α2 refers to α1 refers to interfacial tension between nucleus and surface. The equilibrium equation of surface tension and interfacial tension is: αcosθ = α1 − α2.

Figure 2. Spherical cap-shaped nucleus on surface: θ refers to the wetting angle (contact angle); α refers to surface tension of spherical cap-shaped nucleus; α1 refers to surface tension of surface; α2 refers to α1 refers to interfacial tension between nucleus and surface. The equilibrium equation of surface tension and interfacial tension is: αcosθ = α1 − α2.

2.2. The Choice of Substrates

Ferroelectric thin films are always deposited on substrates. A proper choice of substrates is important for growth of ferroelectric thin films. Effects such as substrate misfit strain can affect the film grow process and film properties, giving rise to the crucial points resting on the choice of appropriate substrates and methods to prepare highly chemically and structurally matched substrate surfaces for epitaxial growth. Perovskite epitaxial ferroelectric films have been successfully prepared with a variety of new perovskite and perovskite-related substrates [10,11], such as SrTiO3 [12], YAlO3 [13], LaAlO3 [14], LaGaO3 [15], LaSrAlO4 [16], LaSrGaO4 [17], NdGaO3 [18], KTaO3 [19], (LaAlO3)0.29-(Sr1/2Al1/2TaO3)0.71 (LSAT) [20] and ReScO3 [21,22], etc. Some commercially perovskite and perovskite-related substrates, and the pseudotetragonal or pseudocubic a-axis lattice constants of some frequently-used ferroelectric perovskites have been listed in Table 1, providing an intuitive reference for substrates select in film fabrication of this category [23]. Due to the fact that most of the commercially available perovskite substrates typically have lattice constants in the 3.8–3.9 Å range, it is obvious that the lattice constants of the commercially engaged perovskite substrates are generally smaller than those of the listed ferroelectric materials [23]. In atomic-scale epitaxy, substrates with defects–free surfaces of specific chemical termination are necessary. Some substrates of this kind have been produced, for instance, TiO2-terminated (100) SrTiO3 substrates and SrO-terminated (100) SrTiO3 substrates [24,25,26], controlled-termination substrates of NdGaO3 and KTaO3 [27,28].

Table 1. Commercially involved perovskite and perovskite-related substrates and the pseudotetragonal or pseudocubic a-axis lattice constants of some frequently-used ferroelectric perovskites. Substrates and thin films which are in the same lines possess similar lattice constants. In one vertical line, lattice constants of thin films or substrates are gradually increasing from top to bottom [23].

Lattice Constants (Å)Perovskite-Related SubstratesFerroelectric Thin Films

Recent advances in mechanics and material science provide routes to integrated circuits that can offer the electrical properties of conventional rigid wafer-based technologies and with the ability to be deformed arbitrarily (e.g., stretched and twisted) by means of flexible substrates [29]. Flexible substrates, which are usually some plastic or elastomeric substrates, have extended the classes of substrates and attracted much attention for their applications in high-performance flexible electronics [29,30,31]. There are also significant efforts being devoted to transfer (stamp and print by using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps or soluble glues) perovskite thin films or nanoribbons onto flexible substrates for the purpose of utilizing the high inherent piezo-properties of ferroelectric materials, or achieving stretchable properties without any loss in ferroelectric/piezoelectric properties [32,33,34]. For instance, PZT, BTO, and STO thin films, originally deposited on rigid substrates, have been successfully transferred onto flexible substrates by removing the sacrificial layers such as SiO2, MgO and TiO2, with the deformation mechanics and material properties being studied [32,33,34,35].

In spite of the widely used PDMS substrates, many flexible substrates have been employed into multifunctional flexible circuits based on ferroelectric thin films both organic (like P(VdF-TrFE) [36]) and inorganic. Some typical examples include polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) [35], polyethylene terephthalate (PET) [37], polyimide (PI) substrates [38], flexible aluminum substrates [36], and thin glass substrates [39] etc. However, the limited processing temperature ranges (mostly less than 300 °C) have restrained applications of those plastic substrates in extreme situations such as crystallization process of inorganic ferroelectrics at high annealing temperature, which may result in sophisticated transferring process. More recently, to solve this problem and simplify experiment process, polycrystalline metal sheet (e.g., polycrystalline Hastelloy tapes) has been proposed to be a promising candidate as the flexible substrate for growth of high performance multifunctional films to meet specific requirements [40]. In general, a buffer layer is usually needed to effectively connect flexible substrates with ferroelectric thin films [40]. It is also noteworthy that significant efforts have been devoted to low-temperature fabrication of promising inorganic ferroelectric thin films (e.g., PZT) on commonly used plastic substrates, among which activated-solution method is an effective one [41]. On the basis of these flexible substrates, ultrathin ferroelectric films can be further studied, with some piezo-related properties such as the specially-focused flexoelectric properties (as will be discussed in Section 4.2) being intensively researched. Moreover, the application scope of ultrathin ferroelectric films can be largely broadened by the use of flexible substrates, with ferroelectric thin-film-based devices such as nanogenerators, sensors and memories systems presenting stretchable properties and working efficiently with proper flexible substrates [32

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